What Is Solid?


Solids are one of four fundamental states of matter. They are characterized by rigidity and a high resistance to forces applied to their surface. In other words, solids are solid objects made of atoms tightly packed together. These properties make them the most durable and hardened forms of matter. Here are some examples of solids.

Object-oriented design principles

Solid object-oriented design principles can help you make more flexible, maintainable, and understandable applications. Listed below are five design principles that SOLID advocates. They are intended to make object-oriented designs easier to create, understand, and maintain. These principles are not mutually exclusive, so you can use one or all of them as needed.

First is interface segregation. This principle requires that classes have minimal non-essential behavior and should only contain the methods or variables they need. This principle is related to the DRY design principle. It prevents code duplication and avoids copy-paste.


A material’s toughness measures how much energy it can absorb before fracturing. This is different from the amount of force that it can withstand. For example, brittle materials have relatively small toughnesses, but elastic materials and plastic can absorb large amounts of energy. As a result, materials with high hardness can withstand large forces.

A Mohs scale is an essential tool for determining the hardness of solid materials. It was developed by mineralogist Friedrich Mohs and used a table with ten minerals to determine the material’s hardness.


The durability of solid materials is a crucial consideration for any construction project. Several factors must be considered, including how the materials will react to different conditions, their composition, shape, and size, and how well they can resist the repeated loading and unloading processes that make them valuable. However, these factors should not overshadow the importance of a good design and careful material selection. A good design also ensures safety and economy, which are all critical in construction.

The durability of concrete is often measured by measuring its ability to withstand the effects of weathering, chemical attacks, and other natural elements while maintaining desired engineering properties. Different types of concrete require different degrees of durability. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater has different requirements than a concrete floor used in an indoor building.

Electrical conductivity

The electrical conductivity of solids is a fundamental property that helps us understand how electricity flows. This property is determined by the generation and recombination of carriers in a solid. The generation of carriers involves the generation of pairs of free electrons, while the removal of the same creates holes. The generation and recombination of carriers are oppositely proportional to the conductivity of the solid.

The electrical conductivity of solids is an essential property of materials at high pressures. Solids can be categorized into several classes based on their variation in electrical conductivity. Most rock-forming silicates and oxides are insulators. Electric conductivity measurements have helped oceanographers understand small-scale temperature distributions.

Covalent network

The Covalent network of a solid is a collection of atoms with varying degrees of intermolecular and interlayer interactions. For example, graphite is a solid composed of planar networks of six-membered rings of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms. Each atom is held together by an electron in the 2pz orbital, which can act as a double bond. In graphite, one-third of each carbon atom is in the form of a single bond. Graphite has a very high melting point, which is 3915degC.

Covalent networks can be distinguished from molecular solids by electrical conductivity, color, melting point, and chemical reactivity. The former is solid with a high melting point, while the latter is made of molecules with low melting and boiling points.


Anisotropy is a property that describes the difference between two materials. Crystals and other crystalline solids exhibit anisotropy in two different directions. Anisotropy of solids is a fundamental characteristic of materials that affaffecteir behavior. Understanding the concept of anisotropy requires knowledge of crystalline chemistry. Crystals are solids arranged in a three-dimensional pattern and are classified as either ionic or covalent.

In crystalline materials, the concentration of atoms varies in different directions. As a result, the physical properties of the solid differ when viewed from different directions.

Molecular crystals

Molecular crystals are solid molecules that are formed through a process of crystallization. Typically, crystals formed by this process are tiny. However, there are some exceptions to this rule. For example, a crystal of iron might be more significant than one of gold. If this is the case, growing the crystals more significant than the ones formed by natural processes might be better.

The intermolecular forces between molecules determine molecular crystals’ melting and boiling points. These may be dispersion forces in non-polar and dipole-dipole forces in polar crystals. In some molecular crystals, molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds, while in others, the molecules are held together by covalent bonds. As a result, molecular crystals generally have lower melting and boiling points than ionic and atomic crystals. Furthermore, they lack free electrons and are poor electrical conductors.

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